Digital economy

Johannes M. Bauer

Michigan State University

Increasing connectivity and ubiquitous computing are transforming the ways we live and work. The digital economy offers tremendous opportunities for entrepreneurs and innovation, but it also created numerous challenges for business, governments, and individuals. After an overview of main developments in the digital economy we will explore the four technological trends that will drive further innovation (Internet of Things, big data analytics, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence) and their implications for skills, workforce development, and lifelong learning. We will discuss the main challenges and opportunities faced by the private and public sector in harnessing the benefits of advanced digital technologies. Digital transformation is seen as a dynamic process with the goal to reach digital maturity. We will look at technological, managerial, and political factors that influence the ability of communities and nations to succeed in the digital economy. Currently, only limited and inconsistent data is available on the digital economy and the digital transformation of businesses. The sessions will also promote discussions around a framework for measuring the digital economy more consistently and a system of indicators that will allow better documentation of the extent and effects of the digital transformation. Key concepts and options will be explored in group discussions and hands-on exercises with the goal to empower participants to implement next steps toward digital maturity.

Smart cities: concepts

Maria Alexandra Cunha

Getulio Vargas Foundation

It is a consensus that smart cities combine technology, urban management, and new patterns of relationships in order to improve the lives of people who inhabit them. However, while this is currently a hot topic that has attracted the attention of executives, public managers, and academics, defining a Smart City is still a conceptual challenge. This difficulty is reflected in the development of indicators and their measurement - how can the smartness of a city be measured? And how should we incorporate the contribution of technology to this smartness? This session will discuss the complexity of defining the concept of smart city, and different ways of overcoming this, highlighting the Brazilian experience. A major challenge in establishing smart city indicators is national and international comparability. Nationally, different realities throughout the territory of the country (various population sizes, economic activities, cultural heritage, natural resources, social indicators, etc.) can attribute different meanings to the "improvement of life" in each city. International comparability is also challenging. We need to enable comparisons, but at the same time we must also value elements that have relevance only for particular places. The unintended consequences faced by cities after the projects will also be addressed - gentrification, inequalities, and no access to smart services due to digital exclusion. These aspects are of special interest for the formulation of public policies in the country, in the region, even in the city. In order to demonstrate the differences between different realities, some important variables for smart cities will be presented in the Brazilian context.

The Road toward Smart Cities

Mauricio Bouskela

Inter-American Development Bank

The presentation will address the great urban challenges faced by cities in the Latin American and Caribbean Region, the opportunities (and challenges) in the migration from a traditional city management to a Smart City. Additionally, we will present the main findings from IDB 18 project designs and 10 case studies and a proposed path to convert the next traditional cities into Smart Cities.

Experience-sharing on initiatives related to (smart) cities

Guillermo Anlló (UNESCO), Jônatas de Paula (UN-Habitat), Luciana Phebo (UNICEF)

(UNESCO), (UN-Habitat), (UNICEF)

The increasing urbanization rates and growing uses of ICT shed light on the issue of how to promote inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities. On one hand, the rapid urban growth demands prompt responses by cities and local governments as well as a greater number of resources to provide services for its population. On the other hand, the expansion of ICT infrastructure in cities and the rapid diffusion of digital mobile devices and connected users may offer an opportunity for local governments to innovate in the provision of services. Based on these two phenomena, the concept of smart sustainable cities has gained prominence in recent years, mainly because it has been considered a possible path to urban sustainability. Assessing and tracking progress towards the implementation of SDG 11 will require data production and appropriate indicators for measurement – and national and international comparability of these indicators is a relevant issue to be considered. Therefore, despite the many opportunities related to the transformation towards smart sustainable cities, it is important that all the stakeholders involved in this process remain attentive to the challenges that this change can entail, either in the discussion regarding aspects of measurement or in the debate on how to formulate and implement policies for urban sustainability in the context of the 2030 Agenda. This session invites representatives of UNESCO Mercosur, UNICEF and UN-Habitat to share their experiences, perspectives and initiatives on themes related to cities and sustainable development, highlighting the potential role of technology, and commenting on challenges and opportunities to be faced in the near future.

E-waste

Vanessa Forti

United Nations University

More and more people are joining the global information society and digital economy, and are benefiting from the opportunities they offer. In parallel, higher levels of disposable incomes, urbanization, and industrialization in many developing countries are leading to growing amounts of electrical and electronic equipment consumption and, consequently, to higher amounts of e-waste at end-of-life.

We will provide an overview of the world's fastest growing waste problem: e-waste. We will cover global problems related to the unsafe collection,disposal of e-waste,impact on the health and environment and e-waste illegal shipment to developing countries. We will introduce global and national main drivers for the generation of e-waste and for relevant global and national data. Further, the core indicators for e-waste statistics will be illustrated as well as the importance of developing nationally produced data that is internationally harmonized. Participants will be further provided with an information on how to collect data on e-waste, both challenges and examples will be discussed. During the sessions, the "UNU E-waste calculation tool" will be briefly introduced, an integral part of the methodologies for the calculation of the weight of electrical and electronic equipment. In conclusion, there will be a room for group discussion where challenges, future actions and possible solutions to the e-waste issue will be discussed. An active discussion among different bodies and institutions is expected.

Participants are expected to gain knowledge pertaining to the challenges of the e-waste problem, its consequences for health and the environment, and a knowledge of e-waste statistics including the guidelines and tools to collect data on e-waste. This opportunity will also allow discussions on possible solutions to improve the e-waste situation in southern America.

Cybersecurity & privacy: Information security

Cristine Hoepers

Brazilian National CERT (CERT.br/NIC.br)

There is a hope that technologies such as smart cities, big data analytics and machine learning can bring enormous benefits to society. This can be true, as long as policy makers, technology developers and users invest enough resources into identifying the risks of the widespread adoption of these technologies, and equally invest in securing the resulting environment. Unfortunately, we are still at the beginning of this deployment and the security and privacy problems abound: Compromised IoT devices are being used to launch DDoS attacks; Massive data breaches at cloud services; Critical systems crashing because of the former attacks. Why are we in this situation? What's missing for a more secure technology? This session will use some case studies to discuss: the importance of information security practices for data protection and privacy; how different stakeholders need to cooperate to achieve a more secure and resilient digital society; and finally will discuss which types of metrics could be useful to determine the level of abuse of the technology and to measure improvements due to policy or market changes.

Cybersecurity & privacy: Risk management in organizations

Benjamin Dean

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

This session will provide the audience with an overview of a framework for the measurement of digital security risk management practices in businesses. This framework has been developed for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The session will take the audience through the definitions and taxonomies associated with key concepts, explain the differences between economic, organizational and technical indicators; then explain measurement issues relating to the development of a survey instrument for collection of data for key indicators.

Cybersecurity & privacy: Privacy and personal data

Carlos Affonso Souza, Institute for Technology & Society of Rio

Institute for Technology & Society of Rio

This is a bad time to take privacy and data protection for granted. More than one hundred countries have some form of a general data protection law, tackling issues such as conditions for collection of personal data, security requirements for its storage and provisions on what can be done with data. However, there is no outstanding model that can be deemed ideal when it comes to designing the protection of privacy and personal data in the national level. Is privacy a Western creation, unfit to the legal landscape of countries such as India? Is the new European General Data Protection Regulation going to set a global standard or the fragmented system of the United States, with several sectoral laws, is still going to offer an alternative regulatory solution? What are the lessons learned from the Cambridge Analytica case? Is there still room to rethink data ownership in a data-driven economy? In times when data is the new oil, should the States have a say on who should be able to access and explore it? In this session we will aim at offering a broad picture of the privacy and data protection debate, pointing out to the regulatory solutions and its respective impacts in the activities of collection, storage and usage of personal data.

All the Ways to Test and Evaluate Survey Questions

Prof. Dr. Pamela Campanelli

The Survey Coach

Testing your questionnaire is an essential step in ensuring a high quality survey. There has been a large proliferation of testing methods (both new methods and variations of existing methods). This course covers 19 different testing methods (plus their variations) and combines information from the survey methodological literature with practical advice and hand’s on practice. More specifically, this course covers (1) methods for testing interview questionnaires - standard pilot, interviewer rating form and variations, and behaviour coding (classical, sequence-based and shortened); (2) methods for testing interview or self-completion questionnaires – such as, expert review, systematic form appraisal (including two online programmes), respondent debriefing (including vignettes and web probing), cognitive interviewing (very short intro), focus groups, split ballot tests, and usability testing; (3) a session on analysis methods (latent class, multi-trait-multi-method, and item response theory) and (4) a discussion of new and unusual techniques such as computational linguistics and crowd sourcing as well as traditional procedures such as examination of item nonresponse, response distributions, and tests of reliability and validity.

All the Ways to Test and Evaluate Survey Questions

Prof. Dr. Pamela Campanelli

The Survey Coach

Testing your questionnaire is an essential step in ensuring a high quality survey. There has been a large proliferation of testing methods (both new methods and variations of existing methods). This course covers 19 different testing methods (plus their variations) and combines information from the survey methodological literature with practical advice and hand’s on practice. More specifically, this course covers (1) methods for testing interview questionnaires - standard pilot, interviewer rating form and variations, and behaviour coding (classical, sequence-based and shortened); (2) methods for testing interview or self-completion questionnaires – such as, expert review, systematic form appraisal (including two online programmes), respondent debriefing (including vignettes and web probing), cognitive interviewing (very short intro), focus groups, split ballot tests, and usability testing; (3) a session on analysis methods (latent class, multi-trait-multi-method, and item response theory) and (4) a discussion of new and unusual techniques such as computational linguistics and crowd sourcing as well as traditional procedures such as examination of item nonresponse, response distributions, and tests of reliability and validity.

Speakers